VSP® Orthognathics


  1. Xia JJ, Gateno J, Teichgraeber JF: A new clinical protocol to evaluate cranio-maxillofacial deformity and to plan surgical correction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67(10):2093, 2009.
  2. Schatz EC, Xia JJ, Gateno J: Development of a technique for recording and transferring natural head position in 3 dimensions. J Craniofacial Surg 21(5):1452-1455, 2010.
  3. McCormick S, Drew S: Virtual model surgery for efficient planning and surgical performance. J Oral Maxillofac Surg  69:638-644, 2011.
  4. Xia JJ, McGrory JK, Gateno J: A new method to orient 3-dimensional computed tomography models to the natural head position: a clinical feasibility study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69(3):584–591, 2011.
  5. Bell, RB: Computer planning and intraoperative navigation in orthognathic surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69:592-605, 2011.
  6. Gelesko S, Markiewicz MR, Weimer K, Bell RB: Computer-aided orthognathic surgery. Atlas Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin N Am 20:107-118, 2012.
  7. Polley JW, Figueroa AA: Orthognathic positioning system: intraoperative system to transfer virtual surgical plan to operating field during orthognathics surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 71: 911-920, 2013.
  8. Bobek S, Farrell B, Choi C, Farrell B, Weimer K, Tucker M: Virtual surgical planning for Orthognathic surgery using digital data transfer and an intraoral fiducial marker: the charlotte method. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 73: 1143-1158, 2015.


  1. Xia JJ, Phillips CV, Gateno J, Teichgraeber JF, Christensen AM, Gliddon MJ, Lemoine JJ, Liebschner MAK. Cost-effectiveness analysis for computer-aided surgical simulation in complex cranio-maxillofacial surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 64(12):1780-4, 2006.
  2. Xia JJ, Gateno J, Teichgraeber JF, Christensen AM, Lasky RE, Lemoine JJ, Liebschner MAK: Accuracy of a Computer-Aided Surgical Simulation (CASS) System in the Treatment of Complex Cranio-Maxillofacial Deformities: A Pilot Study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65(2) 248-54, 2007.
  3. Xia JJ, Sheychenko L, Gateno J, Teichgraeber JF, Taylor TD, Lasky RD, English JD, Kau CH, Mcgrory KR: Outcome of computer –aided surgical simulation in the treatment of patients with craniomaxillofacial deformities. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69(7):2014-2024, 2011.
  4. Hamilton T, Markiewicz MR, Jarman J: Dental outcomes in computer-aided orthognathic surgery. J Craniofac Surg 23(3):e223-e226, 2012.
  5. Hsu SS, Gateno J, Bell RB, Hirsch DL, Markiewicz MR, Teichgraeber JF, Zhou X, Xia JJ: Accuracy of a computer-aided surgical simulation protocol for orthognathic surgery: a prospective multicenter study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 71:128-142, 2013.
  6. Resnick CM, Dang RR, Glick SJ, Padwa BL: Accuracy of three-dimensional soft tissue prediction for le fort I osteotomy using dolphin 3d software: a pilot study. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 46: 289-295, 2017.
  7. Stokbro K, Aagaard E, Torkov P, Bell RB, Thygesen T: Surgical accuracy of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning: a pilot study of bimaxillary orthognathic procedures including maxillary segmentation. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 45: 8–18, 2016.

Research / Early Development

  1. Gateno J, Xia J, Teichgraeber JF, Rosen  A:  A new technique for the creation of a computerized composite skull model. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 61:222-227, 2003.
  2. Gateno J, Xia J, Teichgraeber JF: The precision of computer-generated surgical splints. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 61(7):814–817, 2003.
  3. Xia J, Gateno J, Teichgraeber JF: Three-dimensional computer-aided surgical simulation for maxillofacial surgery. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clinics 13:25-39, 2005.
  4. Gateno J, Xia J, Teichgraeber J, Christensen A, Lemoine J, Liebschner M, Gliddon M, Briggs M:  Clinical feasibility of computer-aided surgical simulation in the treatment of complex cranio-maxillofacial deformities. J Oral Maxillofac Surgery 65: 728-734, 2007.

VSP® Reconstruction


  1. Hirsch DL, Garfein ES, Christensen AM, Weimer KA, Saadeh PB, Levine JP: Use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to produce orthognathically ideal surgical outcomes: a paradigm shift in head and neck reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:2115-2122, 2009.
  2. Bell RB: Computer planning and intraoperative navigation in cranio-maxillary surgery. Atlas Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin N Am 22:135-156, 2010.
  3.  Hanasono MM, Jacob RF, Bidaut L, Robb GL, Skoracki RJ: Midfacial reconstruction using virtual planning, rapid prototype modeling, and stereotactic navigation. Plast Reconstr Surg 126(6):2002-2006, 2010.
  4. Sharaf B, Levine JP, Hirsch DL, Bastidas JA, Schiff BA, Garfein ES: Importance of computer-aided design and manufacturing technology in the multidisciplinary approach to head and neck reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg 21(4):1277-1280, 2010.
  5. Tepper OM, Sorice S, Hershman GN, Saadeh P, Levine JP, Hirsch D: Use of virtual 3-dimensional surgery in post-traumatic craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69:733-741, 2011.
  6. Bell, RB, Weimer KA, Dierks EJ, Buehler M, Lubek JE: Computer planning and intraoperative navigation for palatomaxillary and mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69:724- 732, 2011
  7. Bui TG, Bell RB, Dierks EJ: Technological advances in the treatment of facial trauma. Atlas Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin N Am 20:81-94, 2012.
  8. Seruya M, Borsuk D, Khalifian S, Carson B, Dalesio N, Dorafshar A: Computer-aided design and manufacturing in craniosynostosis surgery.  J Craniofac Surg 24: 1100-1105, 2013.
  9. Jacobs JMS, Dec W, Levine JP, McCarthy JG, Weimer KA, Moore K, Ceradini DJ: Best face forward: virtual modeling and custom device fabrication to optimize craniofacial vascularized composite allotransplantation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 131: 64, 2013.
  10. Matros E, Albornoz C, Rensberger M, Weimer K, Garfein E: Computer-assisted design and computer-assisted modeling technique optimization and advantages over traditional methods of osseous flap reconstruction. J Reconstr Microsurg 29(3)173-180, 2013.
  11. Mardini S, Alsubaie S, Cayci C, Chim H, Wetjen N: Three-dimensional preoperative virtual planning and template use for surgical correction of craniosynostosis. J Plast Reconstr & Asthetic Surg 67 (3) 336-343, 2014
  12. Chim H, Wetjen N, Mardini S: Virtual surgical planning in craniofacial surgery. Semin Plast Surg 28:150-158, 2014.
  13. Monaco C, Stranix J, Avraham T, Brecht L, Saadeh P, Hirsch D, Levine J: Evolution of surgical techniques for mandibular reconstruction using free fibula flaps: the next generation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2066–E2073, 2016.
  14. Patel N, Kim B, Zaid W: Use of virtual surgical planning for simultaneous maxillofacial osteotomies and custom polyetheretherketone implant in secondary orbito-frontal reconstruction: importance of restoring orbital volume. J Craniofac Surg 00: 00–00, 2016.
  15. Monaco C, Stranix J, Lee ZH, Hirsch D, Levine J, Saadeh PB: A modified approach to extensive oromandibular reconstruction using free fibula flaps. J Craniofac Surg 28: 93–96, 2017.


  1. Roser SM, Ramachandra S, Blair H, Grist W, Carlson GW, Christensen AM, Weimer KA, Steed MB: The accuracy of virtual surgical planning in free fibula mandibular reconstruction: comparison of planned and final results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 68:2824-2832, 2010.
  2. Antony AK, Chen WF, Kolokythas A, Weimer KA, Cohen MN: Use of virtual surgery and stereolithography-guided osteotomy for mandibular reconstruction with the free fibula. Plast Reconstr Surg 128(5):1080-1084, 2011.
  3. Markiewicz MR, Bell RB: The use of 3D imaging tools in facial plastic surgery. Facial Plast Surg Clin N Am 19:655-682, 2011.
  4. Haddock NT, Monaco C, Weimer KA, Hirsch DL, Levine JP, Saddeh PB: Increasing bony contact and overlap with computer-designed offset cuts in free fibula mandible reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg 23: 1592-1595, 2012.
  5. Hanasono M, Skoracki R: Computer-assisted design and rapid prototype modeling in microvascular mandible reconstruction. Laryngoscope 123(3): 597-604, 2013.
  6. Broer P, Tanna N, Franco P, Thanik V, Levine S, Garfein E, Saadeh P, Ceradini D, Hirsch D, Levine J: Ten-year evolution utilizing computer-assisted reconstruction for giant ameloblastoma. J Reconstr Microsurg 29: 173-180, 2013.
  7. Doscher M, Garfein E, Bent J, Tepper O: Neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis: converting virtual surgical planning into an operative reality. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 78: 381-384, 2014.
  8. Saad A, Winters R, Wise MW, Dupin C, St. Hilaire H: Virtual surgical planning in complex composite maxillofacial reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 132 (3): 626-633, 2013.
  9. Foley B, Thayer Q, Honeybrook A, McKenna S, Press S: Mandibular reconstruction using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing” an analysis of surgical results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 71: e111-e119, 2013.
  10. Avraham T, Franco P, Brecht LE, Ceradini DJ, Saadeh PB, Hirsch DL, Levine JP: Functional outcomes of virtually planned free fibula flap reconstruction of the mandible. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 134: 628e, 2014.

Case Study/Review

  1. Xia JJ, Gateno J, Teichgraeber JF: A new paradigm for complex midface reconstruction: a reversed approach. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:693-703, 2009.
  2. Chandran R, Keeler GD, Christensen AM, Weimer KA, Caloss R: Application of virtual surgical planning for total joint reconstruction with a stock alloplast system. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69:285-294, 2011.
  3. Markiewicz MR, Bell RB: Modern concepts in computer-assisted craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 19:295-301, 2011.
  4. Patel A, Levine J, Brecht L, Saadeh P, Hirsch DL: Digital technologies in mandibular pathology and reconstruction. Atlas Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin N Am 20:95-106, 2012.
  5. Sink J, Hamlar D, Kademani D, Khariwala SS: Computer-aided stereolithography for presurgical planning in fibula free tissue reconstruction of the mandible. J Reconstr Microsurg 28:395-404, 2012.
  6. Haq J, Patel N, Weimer K, Matthews SN: Single stage treatment of ankylosis of the tempromandibular joint using patient-specific total joint replacement and virtual surgical planning. British J of Oral Maxillofac Surg 52:350-355, 2014.
  7. Levine J, Soo Bae J, Soares M, Brecht L, Saadeh P, Cerandini D, Hirsch D: Jaw in a day: total maxillofacial reconstruction using digital technology. Plast Reconstr Surg 131:1383, 2013.
  8. Qaisi M, Kolodney H, Swedenburg G, Chandran R, Caloss: Jaw in a day: state of the art in maxillofacial reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 74:1284.e1-1284.e15, 2016.
  9. Sosin M, Ceradini D, Levine J, Hazen A, Staffenberg D, Saadeh P, Flores R, Sweeney N, Bernstein L, Rodriguez E: Total face, eyelids, ears, scalp and skeletal subunit transplants: a reconstructive solution for the full face and total scalp burn. Plst. Reconstr. Surg. 138: 205, 2016.
  10. Cleveland EC, Zampell J, Avraham T, Lee ZH, Hirsch D, Levine J: Reconstruction of congenital mandibular hypoplasia with microvascular free fibula flaps in the pediatric population: a paradigm shift. J Craniofac Surg. 28: 79–83, 2017.
  11. Sosin M, Ceradini DJ, Hazen A, Levine JP, Staffenberg DA, Saadeh PB, Flores RL, Brecht LE, Bernstein GL, Rodriguez ED: Total face, eyelids, ears, scalp, and skeletal subunit transplant cadaver simulation: the culmination of aesthetic, craniofacial, and microsurgery principles. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 137: 1569, 2016.